Withdrawal Agreement Irish Backstop
A number of bilateral and multilateral free trade agreements have made goods controls less intrusive; The completion of the European internal market in 1992 led to the end of goods controls. However, during the riots in Northern Ireland, British military checkpoints occurred at major border crossings and British security forces made some, but not all, crossing points impassable. In 2005, in the implementation phase of the 1998 Good Friday Agreement, the last of the border checkpoints was abolished.  In a memo from Industry Minister Richard Harrington, which was picked up by Sky News, «this [technical] idea was discussed and rejected by the UK and the EU in the summer of 2018, with both sides concluding that it would not remain an open border. That`s why we`ve finished the current backstop. There are no borders in the world right now, apart from a customs union that has eliminated border infrastructure.  If the UK were to leave the EU without a «no deal» (if the draft withdrawal agreement is not approved by Parliament), Northern Ireland (under the UK) would have different customs and regulatory standards than Ireland (as part of the EU). This means that customs controls on goods must be imported at the border, which could create a «hard border» with physical infrastructure such as cameras or guard posts. This would undermine the principle of North-South cooperation as defined in the Good Friday Agreement. Negotiations between civil servants resulted in a draft agreement that was to be finalised at a meeting between Jean-Claude Juncker and Theresa May on 4 December 2017 in Brussels.
There has been progress in financial settlement and civil rights, but the meeting was interrupted after the Northern Ireland Democratic Unionist Party opposed agreements for the Irish border.  October 10, 2019, Mr Johnson and Leo Varadkar held «very positive and promising» talks that led to the resumption of negotiations and a week later, Mr Johnson and Jean-Claude Juncker announced that they had reached a withdrawal agreement (subject to ratification) that replaced the backstop with a new protocol on Northern Ireland/the Republic of Ireland.  Under the «backstop», the whole of the United Kingdom would enter a «single customs territory» with the EU. There are many, but, for the most part, there would be no tariffs on trade in goods between the UK and the EU and some trade restrictions would be lifted (although not all of them).